The Pineal Gland, LSD and Serotonin
The following is an attempt to correlate seeming unrelated material into
a meaningful whole. The goal is to synthesize information gathered
about the pineal gland, the psychopharmacological molecule LSD, and the
neurotransmitter serotonin. There have been detailed studies done on
each one of these subjects. For instance, there are volumes of work and
research done on the molecule LSD; the pineal gland has been studied
extensively; and even the hormone serotonin has had its day in the lab.
But there are few studies which have brought together this three-fold
This paper involved a great amount of research. It is the result of
manipulating many manuals, texts, and magazines published by the lay
and the respectable. Almost all the literature available on LSD,
serotonin and the pineal gland is written in their native scientific
nomenclatures. In spite of the amount of study, very little is really
known about these three subjects which is what makes this report
valuable as an initial exploration. The informational pool this
paper provides will be valuable to those true seekers of inner
transactions, that is, subtle metabolic processes which are influenced
Brief History of the Discovery of the Pineal Gland (Epiphysis)
The pineal gland is about the size of a grain of rice. Therefore its
initial discovery was difficult and late in coming. Galen (2nd century)
was probably the first to describe it in the West. He thought it might
be a valve to regulate the flow of thought from the lateral
ventricles--cavities on each side--of the brain. 
Rene Descartes, the French philosopher, who made a number of
rather remarkable scientific discoveries wrote about the gland 1500
years after Galen. In Descartes opinion the pineal was the "seat of the
soul". He also postulated a direct connection between the eyes and the
pineal by means of "strings" in the brain. Also that the gland acted as
an interpreter, indeed the chief interpreter of vision. Not only did
the gland operate as an interpreter but it also directed the muscles to
respond to objects in the visual field. This was done, Descartes
believed, through the flow of humours passing through hollow tubes
between the gland and the muscles. 
The first person to give the pineal gland an endocrine status was Otto
Heubner, a famous German pediatrician. In 1898 he described precocious
puberty in a boy who had a pineal tumor. To confuse the situation,
there were reports of patients with delayed sexual maturity who also had
pineal tumors. As the result of these reports, conflicting though they
were, it was believed for the next fifty years that the pineal had
something to do with the control of puberty.
A slight diversion from the puberty theory came in 1918 when Nils
Holmgren, a Swedish anatomist, made detailed microscopic examinations of
the pineal glands from frogs and dogfish sharks. In these glands he
found cells that looked very much like cone cells (color sensitive
photoreceptor cells) of a retinal nature in the tip of the pineal.
Because of the resemblance Holmgren suggested that the pineal was not a
gland at all, but that it functioned as a 'third eye' in frogs and
dogfish sharks. Holmgren made no study of mammalian pineal glands.
A new round of investigation began in 1958 when Lerner and his team at
the Yale University of Medicine extracted a substance they called
melatonin from the pineals of cattle. Giving more evidential
information towards the validation of the hypothesis that the pineal
gland is an endocrine gland.
Further microscopic probing, this time with mammalian pineals, indicated
an intimate association between the epiphysis (the pineal) and the
sympathetic nervous system. It also revealed no cone cells of the type
found in the retina, so the mammalian pineal did not seem to have the
resembling third eye structure that had been reported for frogs and
dogfish sharks. 
Obviously the discovery of the pineal is a recent one. Research is
fragmented because of the variety of professionals interested (e.g.
theologians, biologists, endocrinologists, and zoologists). At this
point it can be conjectured there is still much history to be written
about this curious pineal gland. Hopefully the next entry in the
historical text will be the discovery of the "spiritual" connections of
the pineal gland to the brain.
The star of this essay is the pineal gland. LSD and serotonin are taken
in consideration because of their mysterious relationship to the pineal.
Most of the findings regarding LSD and serotonin will be better
understood after being first familiar with the epiphysis (the pineal
General Location of the Pineal Organ in Various Animals
Indian yogis who use third eye meditations and exercises refer their
students to the center of the forehead between the lateral eyes. This
is the aft/stern relation of the pineal gland. If anything could be
called the "center" of the physical brain it would be the epiphysis.
In higher vertebrates it rests between the two large cerebrums at the
anterior end of the cerebellum. It appears to be a vestige of some
one-time larger feature. Strangely enough it persists in most animals.
If you were to draw an imaginary line from the center of your forehead
crossed by a line through your head at the ears you would have the
general location of the pineal body. It is definitely buried deep in
the great mass of neurons known as the brain. One fact immediately raises
interest: the pineal, in higher animals, is connected to the cerebellum.
The cerebellum is one of the oldest features of the brain. It consists
of two deeply convoluted hemispheres. Its most important function seems
to be coordinating muscular activity in the body. 
Such activity is initiated by impulses arising in the motor
area of the forebrain. These impulses not only travel down the spinal
cord to the motor neurons but also pass into the cerebellum. As the
body action is carried out, sensory impulses from the proprioceptors,
the eyes, the semi-circular canals, etc., are also sent to the
cerebellum. The cerebellum then compares the information on what the
body is actually doing to what the forebrain had instructed it to do.
 If a discrepancy exists, the cerebellum
sends modifying signals to the forebrain so that appropriate corrective
signals can be sent out to the muscles. It is not surprising that birds
have relatively large cerebella when we consider that they must be
capable of moving swiftly and accurately in three dimensions of space,
while we and other earth-bound animals spend most of our lives moving
about on fairly flat surfaces.  When
thinking of the location of the pineal gland think of it as being near
the upper end of the spinal cord. It ends or terminates in the oldest
anatomical region in the brain.
It might be useful here to note the various locations of other animal's
pineal glands. The most popular creature in third eye studies is the
Western Fence Lizard-Sceloporus occidentalis. This little gentleman
not only has a fine and functional pineal gland but also a
photoreceptive element plainly called a 'third eye'. The pineal of the
Western Fence Lizard is located directly on top of the head. A small
opening (foramen) can be seen in the skull where the 'third eye'
Similar to this tiny reptile is a very distant relative, the Pacific
Tree Frog-Hyla regilla, which also has the pineal topside. H.
regilla does not share the Fence lizard's foramen or optic lens. The
pineal of the Treefrog is barely visible because of the many similar
"bumps" on the skin. Nonetheless it is functional.
Another classic example is the Pacific Sea Lamprey-Petromyzon
marinus. This lamprey represents the lowest forms of living
vertebrates, the cyclostomes, where are jawless, limbless creatures of
great evolutionary significance.  The
lamprey, too, has a conspicuous pineal gland. In fact it has two, both
located together. The pineal gland of the lamprey is usually studied
when the lamprey is in the larval stage. It is then when the gland is
And like the Treefrog and Fence Lizard, the Lamprey has its pineal organ
located above the brain. We will look closer at these three dealing
with the optic quality of their receptors.
It should become apparent after looking at the embryological evidence
that the epiphysis and its possible pathways have semi-receded in the
higher vertebrates. It has migrated from the position of above to the
position of below and center.
The Optic Third Eye Compared to the Endocrinal Pineal Gland
The three animals previously mentioned (Western Fence Lizard, Pacific
Tree Frog, and Sea Lamprey) are to be considered now for their
contribution to the research being done on the optic importance of the
Since the first discovery, right on down to present findings, there has
been the question of the pineal's relation to light. How romantic to
think of a functional third eye pointed skyward for the ultimate in ground
protection! Other obvious benefits are associated with the having of
such a receptor.
In the Western Fence Lizard (S. occidentalis) the pineal and the
parietal third eye are connected by means of the parietal nerve. The
epiphysis is located above the cortex and under the bone of the skull.
Under high magnification one sees the ultrastructures of the cornea,
lens, and retina. The cornea is composed of an inner, highly fibrous
layer and an epidermal layer. The cornea is fused with the lens, a
palisade of elongate, cylindrical cells whose nuclei lie at their basal
ends. A fibrous capsule encloses the eye and attaches it to the skin.
The parietal nerve leaves the retina, passes through the capsule, and
courses posteriorly under the roof of the cranium and then ventrally to
the epiphysis and brain. 
We know that the parietal eye is functional because there are changes in
electrical activity, which can be recorded from the retina (ERG) or
parietal eye nerve when light to the eye is turned off or on. It is
also interesting that a deficiency of vitamin A causes a breakdown in
the outer segments of third eye receptors in S. occidentalis.
Let it be said now that the third eye contains a light sensitive
substance (or perhaps two substances) since it reacts differently to
short and long wave lengths of light. 
The Pacific Treefrog has a similar structure for the third eye and
epiphysis. Even though close observation does not reveal this.
Detailed examination illustrates that it too has a pineal third eye
which protrudes above the surface of the cranial wall. It is responsive
to light stimulation.  The Pacific
Treefrog is the amphibian example of animals with third eye function.
The Sea Lamprey-P. marinus is the aquatic example of third eye
animals. It has, in the larval form, two parietal eyes and nerve which
runs through the epiphysis. And as mentioned, the Sea Lamprey is a
representative of an ancient group of animals. The fact that it has a
third eye is relevant to this story. To know that nature has been
working with the third eye through many cycles of evolution gives just
more inspiration for further studies concerning our pineal organ.
While looking over the many diagrams and sketches of the brain region of
various creatures, one can not help noticing the proximity of the third
eye to the pineal. In fact in some animals there is no dividing line
distinguishing the two. Furthermore there is a relatively major nerve
which comes from the parietal eye to the epiphysis. Certainly this
anatomical connection suggests that light received by the third eye is
sent to the epiphysis for translation and storage. The literature in
the spiritual community may not be so far off when they postulate that
the pineal is the 'Oracle of Light'.
The light of the body is the eye:
therefore when thine eye is single,
thy whole body also is filled with light;
but when thine eye is 'evil',
thy body also is full of darkness.
But we know from anatomy that Homo sapiens and all higher
vertebrates have no protruding third eye. They do have a pineal which
is sensitive to light.  But it is buried
quite deep in the bed of cortical tissue.
The Recent Findings of Pineal Function and Physiology
Since light on this planet is regulated alternatively day and night
(circadian), it would be easy to discern the relation of such cycles to
the pineal and other glands. Indeed, this has been proven.  There are 24 hour cycles in the
concentrations of serotonin (N-acetylserotonin - NAS) and melatonin in
the pineal of the rat. There is also a 24 hour cycle in the conversion
of the norepinephrine (one of the neurotransmitters needed for the
functioning of the synaptic sites in he nervous system's soma) in the
sympathetic nerves innervating in the pineal gland. "This rhythm
persists in blinded rats and animals but is suppressed in normal rats by
light. The same rhythm in norepinephrine turnover generates the rhythms
in pineal indole-amines and N-acetyltranferase." 
There is a relationship between sex hormones and the light receptive
quality of the epiphysis. It has been proposed that one function of the
pineal in the rat is to serve as a neuroendocrine transducer, mediating
the effects of environmental lighting on the gonads.  Accordingly information about lighting is
perceived by the retina and nervous impulses are conveyed to the pineal
gland by way of the sympathetic nerve. The pineal responds by altering
its production of methoxyindoles, these enter the bloodstream and
influence endocrine economy of the body. The methoxyindoles are
synthesized by the pineal in the absence of light and presumably exert
inhibitory effects on the gonads. 
Another curious feature of the pineal organ is the production of
melatonin and serotonin. Serotonin is produced in the gut of the
intestinal tract as well as the Pineal organ. Serotonin is another
transmitter. It is one of the major four, this is, one of the commonest
The interesting thing about serotonin is its change over to melatonin
which occurs chemically in the pineal gland. The pineal gland is the
only area where this is done. This has direct significance to what
happens to the larval stages of most amphibians. It is known as
blanching. Larval forms of amphibians undergo a marked blanching when
maintained for a time in darkness. A similar response is displayed by
many fishes.  It is likely that
blanching is due, in some measure, to a degree of decrease in MHS (a
hormone) release in darkness, but for the most part it is believed that
the principle effect results from the release of melatonin
(N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal. 
This hypothetic scheme, advanced by Bagnara and supported by others
 suggests that under conditions of
darkness, the pineal is stimulated to release melatonin, presumably a
pineal hormone, in the general circulation. 
Melatonin exerts a profound contracting effect on dermal
melanophores (pigment pores) leading to rapid blanching.  The involvement of the pineal in this
response relates to two aspects of its physiology, light reception and
endocrine function.  Morphologic and
electrophysiologic studies have clearly established that the pineal can
function as a photoreceptor, but its role as an endocrine organ is more
obscure, despite the fact that circumstantial evidence strongly
indicates that this is the case. 
The first evidence indicating that the pineal organ contains humoral
agents comes from the experiments of McCord and Allen, who made the
important discovery that tadpoles underwent profound blanching when they
were fed mammalian pineals.  But they
discarded this as an unusual pharmacological phenomena. Later Lerner
and his colleagues isolated a potent "melaosome-aggregating agent"
(hormone) from beef pineal glands, which they identified as melatonin.
Since then this indole has been found in the pineal of other animals
(e.g. monkeys, cows, rats, birds, and amphibians). Of great interest is
the remarkable fact that relatively large amounts are found in the
lateral eyes.  The lateral eyes as well
as the pineals contain all the substrates and enzymes essential for the
synthesis of melatonin. 
Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the
following manner: (1) An N-acetylating enzyme converts serotonin to
N-acetylserotonin; (2) the latter compound is O-methylated through the
action of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Serotonin is
metabolized to 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde by the enzyme monoamine
oxidase (MAO). The activity of this enzyme in the destruction of
serotonin and that of HIOMT in the O-methylation of N-acetylserotonin
provide convenient vehicles for controlling the amount of melatonin
present in an organism at any one time. 
In view of all available data, the hypothesis that the body-blanching
reaction of amphibian larvae is mediated by the pineal seems rather
convincing. However, it must be mentioned that this mechanism is
restricted to the larval form. The adults do not have such a function.
The melanophores of adult fishes and amphibians are generally
unresponsive to melatonin. The body-blanching aspect of the pineal is
the most convincing and clear cut evidence for endocrinal activity. So
far this can not be said of any of the other implication, aroused in
this exploration, or pineal function. 
Serotonin, LSD, and the Epiphysis (Third Eye)
In the last section we described some of the physiology of serotonin,
the pineal gland and its synthesis of the hormones serotonin and
melatonin. Serotonin is a normal, necessary chemical transmitter of
electrical impulses across the synapses (the gaps between nerve cell
bodies). It is intriguing to find that certain hallucinogens have the
same chemical skeletons as serotonin. 
This really doesn't surprise neurologicians, for the fact of
psychedelically induced psychosis has been known.
As mentioned, serotonin is one of the four main neurohumors or
neurotransmitters in higher vertebrate nervous systems. I have
mentioned the location of serotonin production and note here that the
serotonin is transported via the bloodstream to the nerve cells
throughout the body, but most especially in the neurons of the brain.
Here they accumulate in the their minutest molecular form. The molecule
serotonin is utilized by the nerve cells for the complete execution of
electrical impulses across the synaptic gap (which is the micro-gap
between every connection of every nerve cell in the entire nervous
system). The impulses comes along the nerve cell going through the
electro-chemical processes with the ionic forms of calcium and potassium
(the two vitals of the nervous system) until they reach the terminal end
of the cell's dendrites. Upon reaching the end of the electrical
impulse is translated into the neurochemical serotonin. This is then
"squeezed" out into intercellular space only to connect and meet the
other side which is the beginning of the next nerve soma (lining of the
nerve cell). 
Few molecules can penetrate what is known in biology as the "blood
brain barrier". Those that do go directly to the neuron. After that it
becomes a matter of their ability to imitate one of the
neurotransmitters. Our neurons have a safety device for this type of
situation. The neurotransmitters have a unique molecular shape and
can only fit in a specific slot on the synaptic surface. Mind-altering
drugs all operate on mimicking one of the neurotransmitters. (Most all
drugs work internally, one exception is alcohol. Alcohol's effect is
caused by altering the sensitivity of the some or cell wall.)
LSD happens to be one of the more famous antagonists. It not only
penetrates the blood brain barrier but slips slyly into the transmission
site inside the nerve cells themselves. It can mimic serotonin to the
point where the body thinks its serotonin and consequently shoots it
across the synaptic gap. When LSD reaches the other side it is accepted
but the LSD doesn't carry the message any further. The impulse of
electricity is redirected down less familiar pathways, pathways which
have not been highly conditioned. Specifically LSD affects the oldest
parts of the brain first (e.g. upper end of the spinal cord, medulla
oblongata, cerebrum, pineal gland and hypothalamus region) then the
bloodstream takes it forward into the immediate back brain (location of
sight interpretation) up through the area of hearing, the cerebellum,
other sense interpretive centers, and the motor areas.
Using radioactive molecules traced with LSD, science has been able to
follow the course of LSD through the various channels and avenues of the
body. It has been found found that after selecting certain areas of the
various parts of the brain it then migrates to sections with fewer
imprints, for instance the right of the hemisphere, the so-called
creative center. By redirecting consciousness, as it were, into the
unimprinted areas of the cortex, one hypothetically experiences the
world anew, hence the variety of interpretations which arise upon
questioning psychedelic voyagers about their "trip". Because of LSD's
antagonistic effect on serotonin and the pineal gland itself, it would
seem quite likely there is a chemical relationship between mental
illness and deficiencies of serotonin. 
But intravenous doses have been administered to humans with no
psychedelic effects noted.  Melatonin
itself has the same indole structure as LSD. Interesting indeed!
I have a few speculative concepts on meditation's effectiveness on the
practitioner. I hypothesize that performing various breathing techniques,
while concentrating on the third eye (pineal pseudo-location), will
inevitably and imperceptibly stimulate the pineal to produce less
melatonin and serotonin which in turn brings about a change in
consciousness, creating naturally the dynamic somatics of a truly
religio-spiritual experience. Indeed we know now how light plays an
important role in the pineal's production of various hormones and
neurotransmitter-related molecules and we can rather loosely associate
this with the "Light" that often accompanies one during solitudinous
"third eye meditations". Many have witnesses the light in the past and
many more will witness. 
The following is a question and answer dialogue between Lu K'uan Yu
(student) and Liao Jan (teacher) concerning taoist meditation techniques:
Question: I have read Taoist books which all urge the development of
the light in the original cavity or center of spirit (tsu ch'iao, in the
center of the brain between the eyes) at the start of practice but I do
not see why. All Taoist schools regard this as the aim of the
cultivation of (essential) nature without giving details. Will you
please tell me where true nature actually manifests?
Answer: (The tsu ch'iao cavity in) the center of the brain branches out
into two minor channels on its left and right; the left one stands for
t'ai chi (supreme ultimate) and the right one for ch'ung ling
(immaterial spirit); they are linked with the t'ien (heavenly valley)
center above them and yung chuan (bubbling spring) centers in the soles
of the feet after running through the heart in the chest.
The Tao Ching says: "Nature is (in) the heart and manifests through the
eyes; life is (in) the lower abdomen and manifests through the genital
(Essential) nature is spiritual vitality in the heart that manifests
through two channels from the center of the brain. So when seeing is
concentrated on the spot between the eyes, the light of (essential)
nature manifests and will, after long training, unite with (eternal)
life to become one whole. This union is called seeing the void that is
not empty and he who is not awakened to this union will achieve nothing
Question: When I was taught meditation I was urged to empty my heart
(house of fire) of all thoughts, set my mind on cultivating (essential)
nature and open my eyes to contemplate the void to accord with the
correct Way; will you please explain all this to me?
Answer: Seeing the void as not empty is right and seeing the void as
empty is wrong, for failure to return to the (tsu ch'iao) center (which
is not empty) prevents the light of vitality from manifesting. Under
the heart and above the genital organ is an empty space where spiritual
vitality manifests to form a cavity. When spirit and vitality return to
this cavity, spiritual vitality will soar up to form a circle (of light)
which is not void. Voidness which does not radiate is relative but
voidness which radiates is absolute. Absolute voidness is not empty
like relative voidness. Voidness that is not empty is spiritual light
which is spirit-vitality that springs from the yellow hall center (huang
ting or middle tan t'ien, in the solar plexus).
My master Liao K'ung said: "When the golden mechanism (of alchemy)
begins to move and gives out flashes of light, that hall of voidness
(hsu shih, i.e. the heart devoid of feelings and passions) will be
illuminated by a white light which reveals the mysterious gate (hsuan
kuan), the presence of which does not mean emptiness."
Man lives and dies because of this immaterial spirit-vitality; he lives
when it is present and dies when it scatters. Hence it is said: 'Spirit
without vitality; does not make a man live; and vitality without spirit
does not cause him to die.' Prenatal spirit in the heart is nature and
prenatal vitality in the lower abdomen is life; only when spirit and
vitality unite can real achievement be made.
Question: Will you please explain the saying: 'If one reaches the
original cavity of spirit (tsu ch'iao, in the center of the brain
between the eyes) one will find the source of immortal breath.'?
Answer: Worldly men who discover the original cavity of spirit are very
rare indeed. It is under heaven (the top of the head), above the earth
(the lower abdomen), west of the sun (the left eye) and east of the moon
(the right eye). Behind the mysterious gate (hsuan kuan) and before the
spirit of the valley (ku shen) is true nature (chen hsin) which is the
source of true breath (chen hsi). Although this true breath is linked
with postnatal (ordinary) breathing--the latter coming in-an-out through
the mouth and nostrils, cannot reach the original cavity of spirit to
return to the source. The immortal breath that comes from inner (vital)
fourfold breathing (a four-fold breath consists of in-and-out breaths
with corresponding ascent and descent of vitality in the microcosmic
orbit) and not through the nose and mouth, can then return to the
In your quest for immortal breath, you should regulate post-natal
(ordinary) breathing in order to find its source. This immortal breath
is hidden in the original cavity of spirit and is genial and will not
scatter away when post-natal (ordinary) breathing is well regulated.
Hence my master Liao Jen said: "When vitality returns to the original
ocean (its source) life becomes boundless."
(Note: the part that follows is very important.)
Question: Will you please give me the exact position of the original
cavity of the spirit?
Answer: It is (in the center of the brain behind) the spot between the
eyes. Lao Tzu called it 'the gateway to heaven and earth'; hence he
urged people to concentrate on the center in order to realize the
oneness (of all things). In this center is a pearl of the size of a
grain of rice, which is the center between heaven and earth in the human
body (i.e., the microcosm); it is the cavity of prenatal vitality. To
know where it lies is not enough, for it does not include the wondrous
light of (essential) nature which is symbolized by a circle which
fatherly Confucius called virtuous perfection (jen); the Book of Change
(I Ching) calls it the ultimateless (wu chi), the Buddha perfect
knowledge (yuan ming) and the Taoists, the elixir of immortality or
spiritual light; which all point to the prenatal One True Vitality. He
who knows this cavity can prepare the elixir of immortality. Hence it
is said: 'When the One is attained, all problems are solved.'
Therefore, during the training both eyes should turn inward to the
center (between and behind them) in order to hold on to this One which
be held in the original cavity of spirit (tsu ch'iao) with neither
strain nor relaxation; this is called fixing spirit in the original
cavity which should be where (essential) nature is cultivated and the
root from which (eternal) life emerges. 
The above is a translation from a very ancient Chinese dialog between
master and student, a conversation which illustrates there were and are
some who have put the knowledge of the pineal gland to beneficial use by
concentrating upon its general location which we have described in quite
some detail. Those who also use this information will be directly
altering their biochemical balance for the better.
I will go one further step in speculative ideology. It is my assumption
there is a LIGHT which penetrates even the deepest of neural tissue. I
believe this has a direct effect on the physiology of the pineal gland
which in turn affects the organism as a whole.
Research Presently Needed For Further Understanding
At present we need further research in specific fields. First there
should be extensive research done on the effects of light on the
ultrastructure of the epiphysis. These experiments should not be
limited to selected species but carried out in relation to all species
which have a pineal organ. Along with this should be the research on
the whys and wherefores of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. Serotonin/LSD
antagonism and neurological disease and health should be openly
researched. Evidence found along the way should be related to the
findings of pineal studies. There should be further endeavors regarding
melatonin and its relationship to neurological functioning; further
exploration on meditation's effect on the chemical balance of the body
and effect of meditation the production and synthesis of serotonin and
All in All there is Much to be Done!
This information can be useful to your life now. To know that there are
physical effects of "mind-drugs" that mimic natural body effects and
that physical phenomena is altered through external methods (drugless),
is to bring more light to all these new and dynamic ways to truly
"change" one's "consciousness".
1. Ruthann LeBaron, Hormones, a Delicate Balance (New York 1972)
p. 140. Regasus.
2. Ibid., p. 141.
3. Ibid., p. 141.
4. Earl Frieden, Biochemical Endocrinology of the Vertebrates,
(Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey) p. 258. Princeton.
5. John W. Kimball, Biology (Palo Alto, California 1965) p. 354.
6. Ibid., p. 350.
7. Ibid., p. 351.
8. Richard M. Eakin, The Third Eye (California 1973) p. 5. University
of California Press.
9. Ibid., p. 27.
10. Ibid., p. 124.
11. Ibid., p. 130.
12. Luke 11:34 The Holy Bible (King James Version)
13. Loc. cit., p. 25. Earl Frieden.
14. Brownstein and J. Axelrod, "Pineal Gland and the 24 Hour Rhythm in
Norepinephrine Turnover" Science (April 12, 1974) pp. 163-5.
15. Ibid., loc. cit., Brownstein.
16. Julius Lee, Animal Hormones (London 1975) pp. 588-593.
17. Loc. cit., Julius Lee.
18. Op. cit., p. 603. Julius Lee.
19. Loc. cit., p. 604.
20. Ibid., p. 588.
21. Ibid., p. 589.
22. Ibid., p. 590.
23. Clarence Donnell Turner, General Endocrinology (Philadelphia 1971)
p. 463. Saunders.
24. Ibid., pp. 476-480.
25. Ibid., p. 481.
26. Op. cit., Animal Hormones, p. 151.
27. Ibid., p. 153.
28. Bernard Aronson and Humphrey Osmond, Psychedelics (New York 1970)
29. Ibid., p. 198.
30. Ibid., pp. 198-201.
31. Urantia Foundation, The Urantia Book (Chicago 1955), pp. 1007-1098.
32. Lu K'uan Yu, Taoist Yoga New York 1973) p. 3-6.
33. Ibid., p. 7.
34. Op. cit., The Urantia Book p. 485.
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Turner, Clarence Donnel, General Endocrinology. Philadelphia: Saunders
Brainard, Bud, "The Eye of the Soul", New Age. (April 1976)
Lee, Julius, Animal Hormones. London: Hutchinson University Library,
Hall, Peter F., The Function of the Endocrine Glands. Philadelphia:
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